by Stephen Mifsud
   24 Feb 2020      ()
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Asperula cynanchica   (Squinancywort)

Asperula cynanchica   (RUBIACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands at or after year 2000.

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Profile Date Oct-2010 (last update: 12-Jan-2019)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (Oct-2010) Asperula cynanchica retrieved from on 2020-Feb-24

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Asperula cynanchica L.
Published in L., Sp. Pl. 104 (1753)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

No Main Synonyms
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life ]

Plant Family :

Rubiaceae Juss. (The Bedstraw Family)
14 species from the Rubiaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :


Maltese name(s) :

Maltese name not known

Status for Malta :

Doubtful origin. It is not yet established if this species is native or not)

Frequency :

Very Common     Common     Frequent     Scarce     Rare     Very rare     Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: HEMICRYPTOPHYTE (prostate plants with flowers close to the ground)
Germination [info]: Dicotyledon

Legal Protection [link]:

Not Protected by Law (LN200/2011 or LN311/2006)

Red List (1989) :

Not listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :

All Year

Colour of Flowers:

Pink, Red and Violet

Species Description and Distribution

Habitat in Europe:

Data will be available in the next update of this website.

Preferred habitat in Malta:

Data will be available in the next update of this website.

Botanical Description:

Laxly or densely caespitose, green, sometimes glaucous-pruinose, with more or less numerous non-flowering shoots, but without subterranean stolons. Stems 10-50 cm, ascending to erect, herbaceous at base, usually rough with short hairs at base, subglabrous above; middle internodes 1-3 times as long as the leaves. Leaves (15-)20-35(-40) x 0.8-1.5 mm, in whorls of 4 throughout, narrowly lanceolate to linear, acute; midrib comprising less than ¾ of width of leaf; margin flat to weakly revolute. Inflorescence usually much-branched; pedicels 0-1 mm. Corolla 2.5-3.5(-4) mm, broadly infundibuliform, pale purplish to whitish, usually more or less rough; tube 1-1½(-2) times as long as lobes; lobes distinctly appendiculate. Fruit 1.5-2 mm, papillose, rarely hairy.

Chromosome number:

2n=20, 40

Distributional range:

Most of Europe northwards to 54° 30' N. in England and C. Russia.

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):

Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):

Albania, Austria and Liechtenstein, Belgium, the Balaeric Islands, Britain (excl. Northern Ireland and Channel islands), Bulgaria, Crete, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Germany, Greece, Ireland, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Hungary, Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), ex-Jugoslavia, Poland, Romania, Russia and former USSR, Sardinia, Sicily and/or Malta

Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(Euro+Med Checklist, 2017) - Country codes

? Ag Al Au(A) Be Bl(I M) Br Bu By Co Cr Cs Ct Ga(F) Ge Gr Hb(E) He Ho Hs(S) Hu It Lt Ma Mo Po Rf(C E S) Rm Sa Si(M S) Sk Sl Sr Tn Uk [Es]

Images (10 images)
   Asperula cynanchica   -   Image Code: APRCY-0.
   Asperula cynanchica   -   Image Code: APRCY-1.
   Asperula cynanchica   -   Image Code: APRCY-2.
   Asperula cynanchica   -   Image Code: APRCY-3.
   Asperula cynanchica   -   Image Code: APRCY-4.
   Asperula cynanchica   -   Image Code: APRCY-5.
   Asperula cynanchica   -   Image Code: APRCY-6.
   Asperula cynanchica   -   Image Code: APRCY-7.
   Asperula cynanchica   -   Image Code: APRCY-8.
   Asperula cynanchica   -   Image Code: APRCY-9.

Links & Further info

Google Web

Google Images

Yahoo Web

Yahoo Images




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



The Plant List


Vienna Virt. Hb.





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